Structural Elements means those parts or elements of a building that resist forces and moments and includes foundations, beams, columns, shear cores, structural walls, struts, ground anchors, slabs, trusses, staircases, load-bearing walls, and all other elements designed to resist forces and moments but does not include doors, windows, and non-load bearing walls.
1 The structural elements of a building
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1. Vocabulary about elements of a Building.
- Structural Elements: cấu kiện
- Beam: dầm phụ
- Girder: dầm chính
- Truss: giàn
- Column: cột
- Slab: tâm, bản
- Wall: tường, vách
- Frame: khung
- Roof: mái
A building is made up of various types of structural elements such as beams, girders, trusses, columns, floors, walls, frames, roofs…they can be used independently or in combination to establish a structural system.
2. Vocabulary about Column and Beam
- Wood: gỗ
- Steel: thép
- reinforced concrete: bê tông cốt thép
- cast iron: gang
- at one time: ở một thời gian nào đó
- lintel: lanh tô
- wrought iron: sắt rèn
- poured in place: được đổ tại chỗ (bê tông)
- industrial buildings: nhà công nghiệp
- casting yard: bãi đúc
Columns and beams may be constructed of wood, steel, or reinforced concrete, cast iron was widely used at one time for columns and for short beams such as lintel but Steel and reinforced concrete have largely replaced it. Nowadays wrought iron has been entirely replaced by Steel. Reinforced concrete beams and columns may be poured in place to form a rigid frame. In industrial buildings. They are usually prefabricated in a factory or a casting yard.
2 Vocabulary about truss, wall and roof
1. Vocabulary about Truss.
- triangle: hình tam giác
- Long span trusses: dàn có bước nhịp dài
- precast units: cấu kiện đúc sẵn.
The truss is a structural member consisting of a group of triangles, arranged in a single plane. Long-span trusses are usually constructed of steel; others are constructed of wood or reinforced concrete. Most trusses are precast units.
Rigid frames are constructed of wood, reinforced concrete, and Steel.
Floors are usually constructed of wood or reinforced concrete, concrete beams, girder, and floor slabs may be poured in place. Occasionally they are precast units.
2. Vocabulary about Wall
- dwelling house: nhà ở
- brick: gạch
- stone: đá
- wall panel: tấm tường
The walls of a dwelling house are usually constructed of bricks or stones. In multi-story buildings, they are constructed of wall panels.
3. Vocabulary about Roof
- gable roof: mái đầu hồi
- king – post trusses: giàn 2 mái đơn giản
- purlin: xà gồ
- rafters: vì kèo
- flat roof: mái bằng
- flat roof which is poured in place: mái bằng đổ tại chỗ
The roof of a dwelling house is usually a gable roof, consisting of king–post trusses, purlins, rafters which are covered with titles. In most buildings, the roof is a reinforced concrete flat roof that is poured in place.
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